This chapter aims at contributing to the discussion of the theoretical and empirical conundrum regarding the liberalization–safety nexus in the airline industry. Section 2 discusses the evolution of market liberalization and contestability conditions primarily in the EU by highlighting issues related to safety. Then section 3 discusses the main determinants of safety in the airline industry and the possible implications of market deregulation/liberalization for safety. Subsequently, section 4 shows the results of secondary data research regarding the evolution of aircraft incidents and fatalities in selected European countries. Finally, section 5 summarizes and concludes.